Research Project

2023-2024 Hostilities and Escalating Violence in the oPt

The Diakonia IHL Centre Jerusalem provides in-depth legal analysis of the 2023-2024 hostilities in Israel and Gaza, as well as escalating violence across the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Publications on this topic are listed below.

Legal Updates

As the hostilities between Israel and armed groups in Gaza persist and the levels of violence in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, remain high, this webpage will provide regular updates regarding legal aspects of the evolving situation.

Legal Brief

This legal brief examines the actions of the parties to the hostilities that broke out in Israel and Gaza on 7 October 2023 with an attack mounted by Hamas forces and a counteroffensive launched by Israel in the period lasting until 8 November 2023.

Notes on the Applicable Legal Framework

These notes highlight the IHL principles on the conduct of hostilities as well as the rules on attacks, detention, treatment of the dead, collective punishment, and reprisals.

Account of Events

This account of events is based on available and verified facts at the time of writing. The page reflects developments in the time period from 7 October 2023 until 7 January 2024.

ICJ Proceedings - South Africa v. Israel

On 29 December 2023, South Africa instituted proceedings against Israel before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) concerning alleged violations by Israel of its obligations pursuant to the Genocide Convention in the Gaza Strip. On 26 January 2024, the Court rendered an order for the indication of provisional measures.

These publications examine key legal aspects of the proceedings.

Photo Credits:

Cover Photo: Mohammed Zaanoun/ActiveStills Photo Collective (Al-Batn Al-Thameen area of Khan Yunis, southern Gaza, 7 December 2023). All rights reserved.

Legal Updates: Mohammed Zaanoun/ActiveStills Photo Collective (Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, 12 November 2023). All Rights Reserved.

Legal Brief: Mohammed Zaanoun/ActiveStills Photo Collective, Gaza (Gaza City, 11 October 2023). All Rights Reserved.

Notes on the Applicable Legal Framework: View of the Ruins of a Building Destroyed by an Airstrike Carried Out by Israel. Mohammed Zaanoun/ActiveStills Photo Collective, Gaza (Jabaliya, 11 October 2023). All Rights Reserved.

Account of Events: Mohammed Zaanoun/ActiveStills Photo Collective, Gaza (Al-Rimal, Gaza City, 8 October 2023). All Rights Reserved.

ICJ Proceedings (South Africa v. Israel): View of the Courtroom, 26 January 2024. UN Photo/ICJ-CIJ/Frank van Beek. Courtesy of the ICJ. All Rights Reserved.