Research Project

Resurging violence in Israel-Palestine

A new wave of violence and hostilities in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict led to many causalities and destruction in May 2021. We analyse aspects of international law and related concerns regarding the resurgence of violence.

Ethnic violence in Israel and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as well as an outbreak of a new wave of hostilities between Israel and armed groups in Gaza brought devastation and claimed many casualties in May 2021.

In this research project, the Diakonia International Humanitarian Law Centre Jerusalem provides in-depth analyses of the applicable rules of international law to the situation and highlights concerns relating to the current resurge of violence.

Legal brief

An overview of applicable rules of international law

This brief provides an overview of rules of international law binding upon actors involved in the escalating tension and resulting violence that has recently erupted in the Palestinian-Israeli context. The brief clarifies relevant legal obligations of the parties involved, as well as those of other actors with influence in the context.

Destruction in Gaza following Israeli strike May 2021. © Photo by UNDP

Timeline

From displacement and dispossession in Sheikh Jarrah to hostilities

The main source of contention of the eruption of violence in April and May 2021 was the planned eviction of Palestinian families from their homes in the East Jerusalem neighbourhood of Sheikh Jarrah. This timeline provides an overview of the families’ long battle against attempts by Jewish settlers to evict them.

Thematic Note 1

Discrimination

This thematic note focuses on discrimination in the Palestinian-Israeli context, including in the recent tensions and violence. It looks at discriminatory policies and practices of Israel in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and in its own territory, and analyses them in view of its obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL)

Thematic Note 2

Use of force in law enforcement

This thematic note addresses the law regulating use of force in the context of law enforcement operations. In the wake of resurging violence in the Israeli-Palestinian context, the note focuses on practices of the Israeli security forces (ISF), that appear to entail a systemic breach of the law in question.

Detention

Thematic Note 3

Detention

This thematic note addresses the law regulating arrest and detention of persons. It focuses on practices of Israeli authorities in the course of the resurging violence in the Israeli-Palestinian context that appear to entail a systemic breach of the law in question.

Hostilities thematic note

Thematic Note 4

Hostilities

This thematic note addresses the law regulating the conduct of hostilities. It focuses on the most recent round of hostilities in the Israeli-Palestinian context that took place in May 2021, involving rocket and mortar attacks launched by Hamas and other armed groups towards Israel and airstrikes conducted by the Israeli military in Gaza.

Photos: Destruction in Gaza following Israeli strikes in May 2021. © UNDP, Hazem Alabyad for OCHA, and Tanya Habjouqa/LWD