The law of occupation mainly consists of the Hague Regulations and the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949. The law of occupation applies when, during an international armed conflict, a territory comes under the effective control of a foreign power.
The IV Hague Convention of the laws and customs of war is part of the Hague Conventions, which are a set of conventions adopted at the Peace Conference held in
The Fourth Geneva Convention is one of the four Geneva Conventions, which are a set of conventions adopted in Geneva, Switzerland 12 August 1949 subsequent to the horrors done to civilians in World War II by the combating parties. The international community adopted the conventions to establish the rules to alleviate the suffering in times of armed conflicts. Specifically, the Fourth Geneva Convention sets rules intended to protect civilians in times of war and minimize the harm inflicted by the armed conflict, including to internees and the population in occupied territories. As of November 2009, 194 states have signed and ratified the convention. According to many scholars, the Fourth Geneva Convention is today considered to be international customary law, which all states should abide by regardless of their status as a state party to the convention.
Sawed and uprooted olive trees, Jayyous, May 2006. Photo: Hanna Lagerlöf